HBC203: Show how statistics and data can help in our understanding of relevant issues in our daily lives by developing a research question that you would like to examine, and that could be addressed scientifically (e.g., does exercising daily help reduce depressive symptoms?). State your question and design an experiment to address your question. Statistics and Data Analysis for the Social and Behavioural Sciences assignment
Module / Subject / School:
HBC203 Statistics and Data Analysis for the Social and Behavioural Sciences
Singapore University of Social Sciences
Question 1 (40 marks)
Show how statistics and data can help in our understanding of relevant issues in our daily lives by developing a research question that you would like to examine, and that could be addressed scientifically (e.g., does exercising daily help reduce depressive symptoms?). State your question and design an experiment to address your question.
Limit yourself to one independent variable with two levels/conditions and one dependent variable, and state what these variables are. Discuss how you would manipulate the independent variable, how you would measure the dependent variable, your population of interest, the number of participants you would recruit and why, the exact procedure for sampling from that population, and any other considerations you deem relevant in designing this experiment. You should also describe clearly (using examples if necessary) one potential source of confound and discuss how you would control for it in your experiment. In designing this experiment, ensure that your dependent variable has at least interval characteristics.
Identify the parametric test you will use to analyse the data from your experiment and explain why that is the appropriate parametric test.
You do not need to provide data or conduct the analyses. Your answer should be limited to 550 words.
Question 2 (60 marks)
This question contains a total of 10 parts.
Elizabeth wants to investigate whether babies prefer to look at male or female faces. She showed six 3-month-old babies (four boys and two girls) pictures of a male face and a female face simultaneously side-by-side for 10 seconds. The amount of time in seconds each baby looked at the male face and the female face respectively is presented in the table below.
Note. Both the study and the data are hypothetical. For the purposes of this exercise, we are using a small sample size. However, in the real world, a much larger sample with more observations would be recommended for reliable results.
- Identify the predictor variable. State the number of levels/conditions and identify what the levels/conditions are. Identify the outcome variable. (4 marks)
- Identify the scale of measurement of the predictor variable and explain why. (6 marks)
- Identify the scale of measurement of the outcome variable and explain why. (6 marks)
- Identify if this an experimental or observational study. Explain why in the context of this study to support your answer. (4 marks)
- Identify if this is a between-subjects or within-subjects design. Explain why in the context of this study to support your answer. (4 marks)
- Based on the study design, identify the most appropriate parametric statistical test to conduct. Discuss why this is the most appropriate parametric test by providing two reasons in the context of this study. (6 marks)
- State the null hypothesis (H0) and the non-directional alternative hypothesis (H1). (4 marks)
- Assuming all the assumptions of the statistical test you identified in (f) are met and there are no concerns about small sample size, analyse the data using jamovi. Show the jamovi spreadsheet by taking a screenshot of the spreadsheet (i.e., what you see when you click the DATA tab) and pasting it in your answer. The jamovi spreadsheet should be correctly formatted. Further, paste all the output necessary for interpretation of the results in your answer. (12 marks)
- Interpret the results of your data analysis. Explain your answer with reference to the p value and the alpha level. Use an alpha level of .05. (4 marks)
- Discuss and report the results in APA format. (10 marks)
What we score:
Our Writer’s Comment
This assignment tests students on their knowledge of statistics.
Based on the assignment requirements provided, here are some comments to help students score well on this assignment:
- For your research question, ensure it is relevant and applicable to daily life. State the question clearly, such as “Does regular daily exercise help reduce depressive symptoms?”
- Limit your experiment to one independent variable (e.g., exercise frequency) with two levels (e.g., daily exercise and no exercise) and one dependent variable (e.g., depressive symptoms).
- Describe how you would manipulate the independent variable (e.g., participants assigned to daily exercise or no exercise group) and how you would measure the dependent variable (e.g., using a standardized depression questionnaire).
- Clearly define your population of interest (e.g., adults aged 18-45) and justify the number of participants you would recruit (e.g., using power analysis to determine sample size).
- Explain your sampling procedure (e.g., random sampling from a specific community or online recruitment) and any other relevant considerations (e.g., inclusion/exclusion criteria).
- Identify one potential confounding variable (e.g., diet) and discuss how you would control for it (e.g., random assignment, matching participants based on diet).
- Choose a dependent variable with at least interval characteristics (e.g., depressive symptom scores on a scale).
- Identify the appropriate parametric test for analyzing the data (e.g., an independent samples t-test for comparing two groups) and explain why it is suitable for this experiment (e.g., it compares means of two groups and assumes normal distribution).
- Clearly identify the predictor variable (e.g., gender of the face shown) and its levels (e.g., male face and female face). Also, identify the outcome variable (e.g., time looking at each face).
- Explain the scale of measurement for the predictor variable (e.g., nominal, as it represents categories – male and female faces).
- Describe the scale of measurement for the outcome variable (e.g., ratio, as it represents a continuous quantity – time in seconds).
- Determine whether the study is experimental or observational and justify your answer (e.g., experimental, as the researcher manipulated the presentation of faces).
- Identify whether it is a between-subjects or within-subjects design and provide reasoning (e.g., between-subjects, as each baby is exposed to only one condition – either male or female face).
- Based on the study design, choose the most appropriate parametric test (e.g., an independent samples t-test) and explain why it is suitable (e.g., it compares means of two groups – male and female faces).
- State the null hypothesis (H0) and the non-directional alternative hypothesis (H1) for the chosen test (e.g., H0: There is no difference in time looking at male and female faces; H1: There is a difference).
- If assumptions are met, analyze the data using jamovi and provide the necessary output for interpretation (e.g., a t-value, degrees of freedom, and p-value).
- Interpret the results, making reference to the p-value and alpha level (e.g., if p-value < 0.05, there is a statistically significant difference in time looking at male and female faces).
- Report the results in APA format, including relevant statistical values and a clear statement about the findings (e.g., “A significant difference in gaze time was found between male and female faces, t(4) = 2.76, p = 0.045.”).
Ensure that your answers are concise, well-structured, and provide clear justifications for your choices and interpretations. Follow the guidelines provided and demonstrate your understanding of the concepts and statistical tests.
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